Past Successes of Teams in Sports Increases Their Chances of Future Victories

A study showing the power of teamwork, with implications for cooperative efforts outside of sports, such as in business or communities.

What makes a team successful? This is not only a crucial question for football coaches, it plays a role in almost all areas of life, from corporate management to politics. It goes without saying that a team can only win if the team members have the necessary skills. But there is another important element: joint successes in the past increase the chances of winning. This effect shows up in a similar way in completely different team sports.

A research team from TU Wien (Vienna), Northwestern University (Evanston, USA), and the Indian Institute of Management (Udaipur) were able to statistically prove this phenomenon by analyzing large amounts of data in physical sports (football, baseball, cricket and basketball), and also in e-sports (namely the multiplayer online game “Dota 2”). The results have now been published in the journal Nature Human Behaviour.

Skills are not everything

The research team collected extensive data on numerous teams from several sports. The strength of individual players was quantified using different parameters — for example in basketball, the number of points scored and the number of assists was taken into account. The strength of the team can then be calculated as the average strength of the players.

“This gives us a value that can predict the outcome of a game reasonably well,” says Julia Neidhardt of the E-Commerce research unit (Institute for Information Systems Engineering, TU Wien, Vienna). She conducts research in the areas of team performance, user modeling and recommender systems. She does not only consider individuals, but also models their relationships, for example with the help of social network analysis. “Teams with better individual players have of course a higher chance of winning — but that’s not the end of the story,” says Neidhardt.

The team effect

In all the sports studied, the actual results of the games can be predicted even better by not only considering the average strength of the team members, but also taking into account how often they have been victorious together in the past. It is therefore not only important to bring the best possible stars to the field, they also have to gain experience together as a team by celebrating joint victories.

Especially in elite sports, where the skills of all involved professionals are extremely high, individual differences do not necessarily play the key role. As the differences in the skill levels decrease, common experience becomes more important.

It is particularly interesting that the effect was to be seen in very different sports: In football or in the e-sport “Dota 2,” the team members permanently depend on each other. Most actions are performed by several players at the same time. In baseball, on the other hand, throwing and hitting the ball are individual actions that have nothing to do with the rest of the team. Nevertheless, the team effect can be seen in all these sports.

Robust result

There are different possible explanations for this: By training and playing together for a long time, the players become better at coordinating their actions and predicting their teammates’ reactions, but there may also be strong psychological effects, when there is a strong emotional bond between the team players. The statistical data cannot conclusively answer the question which effect is more important. “We can see clearly that in the case of similar skill levels, prior shared success is a good predictor of which team is going to win,” says Julia Neidhardt. “This effect is very robust, in a variety of sports. This leads us to suspect that similar effects also occur in other areas.”

Study: Perfectionism Among the Young Has Significantly Increased Since the 1980s

It seems as if the policies of neoliberalism had a major role in these unhealthy manifestations. I have thought for years now that there is generally too much competition and not enough cooperation in society today, which is part of the reason I advocate for reforms such as increasing the use of democratic co-operatives.

The drive to be perfect in body, mind and career among today’s college students has significantly increased compared with prior generations, which may be taking a toll on young people’s mental health, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.

This study is the first to examine group generational differences in perfectionism, according to lead author Thomas Curran, PhD, of the University of Bath. He and his co-author Andrew Hill, PhD, of York St John University suggest that perfectionism entails “an irrational desire to achieve along with being overly critical of oneself and others.”

Curran and Hill analyzed data from 41,641 American, Canadian and British college students from 164 samples who completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, a test for generational changes in perfectionism, from the late 1980s to 2016. They measured three types of perfectionism: self-oriented, or an irrational desire to be perfect; socially prescribed, or perceiving excessive expectations from others; and other-oriented, or placing unrealistic standards on others.

The study, published in the journal Psychological Bulletin, found that more recent generations of college students reported significantly higher scores for each form of perfectionism than earlier generations. Specifically, between 1989 and 2016, the self-oriented perfectionism score increased by 10 percent, socially prescribed increased by 33 percent and other-oriented increased by 16 percent.

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The increase in perfectionism may in part be affecting the psychological health of students, said Hill, citing higher levels of depression, anxiety and suicidal thoughts than a decade ago.

Hill urged schools and policymakers to curb fostering competition among young people in order to preserve good mental health.