Teaching Young Students Empathy Improves Their Creativity, University of Cambridge Finds

Having students become more skilled at looking at things from different perspectives may be what drove the increase in their creativity. The power of enhanced creativity can obviously be leveraged in many fields to boost levels of success.

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Teaching children in a way that encourages them to empathise with others measurably improves their creativity, and could potentially lead to several other beneficial learning outcomes, new research suggests.

The findings are from a year-long University of Cambridge study with Design and Technology (D&T) year 9 pupils (ages 13 to 14) at two inner London schools. Pupils at one school spent the year following curriculum-prescribed lessons, while the other group’s D&T lessons used a set of engineering design thinking tools which aim to foster students’ ability to think creatively and to engender empathy, while solving real-world problems.

Both sets of pupils were assessed for creativity at both the start and end of the school year using the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking: a well-established psychometric test.

The results showed a statistically significant increase in creativity among pupils at the intervention school, where the thinking tools were used. At the start of the year, the creativity scores of pupils in the control school, which followed the standard curriculum, were 11% higher than those at the intervention school. By the end, however, the situation had completely changed: creativity scores among the intervention group were 78% higher than the control group.

The researchers also examined specific categories within the Torrance Test that are indicative of emotional or cognitive empathy: such as ’emotional expressiveness’ and ‘open-mindedness’. Pupils from the intervention school again scored much higher in these categories, indicating that a marked improvement in empathy was driving the overall creativity scores.

The study’s authors suggest that encouraging empathy not only improves creativity, but can deepen pupils’ general engagement with learning. Notably, they found evidence that boys and girls in the intervention school responded to the D&T course in ways that defied traditional gender stereotypes. Boys showed a marked improvement in emotional expression, scoring 64% higher in that category at the end of the year than at the start, while girls improved more in terms of cognitive empathy, showing 62% more perspective-taking.

The research is part of a long-term collaboration between the Faculty of Education and the Department of Engineering at the University of Cambridge called ‘Designing Our Tomorrow’ (DOT), led by Bill Nicholl and Ian Hosking. It challenges pupils to solve real-world problems by thinking about the perspectives and feelings of others.

The particular challenge used in the study asked pupils at the intervention school to design an asthma-treatment ‘pack’ for children aged six and under. Pupils were given various creative and empathetic ‘tools’ in order to do so: for example, they were shown data about the number of childhood asthma fatalities in the UK, and a video which depicts a young child having an attack. They also explored the problem and tested their design ideas by role-playing various stakeholders, for example, patients, family-members, and medical staff.

Nicholl, Senior Lecturer in Design and Technology Education, who trains teachers studying on the University’s D&T PGCE course, said: “Teaching for empathy has been problematic despite being part of the D&T National Curriculum for over two decades. This evidence suggests that it is a missing link in the creative process, and vital if we want education to encourage the designers and engineers of tomorrow.”

Dr Helen Demetriou, an affiliated lecturer in psychology and education at the Faculty of Education with a particular interest in empathy, and the other researcher involved in the study, said: “We clearly awakened something in these pupils by encouraging them to think about the thoughts and feelings of others. The research shows not only that it is possible to teach empathy, but that by doing so we support the development of children’s creativity, and their wider learning.”

The gender differences charted in the study indicate that the intervention enabled students to overcome some of the barriers to learning that assumed gender roles often create. For example, boys often feel discouraged from expressing emotion at school, yet this was one of the main areas where they made significant creative gains according to the tests.

In addition to the Torrance Tests, the researchers conducted in-depth interviews with pupils at both the intervention school and a third (girls-only) school who also undertook the asthma challenge. This feedback again suggested that pupils had empathised deeply with the challenges faced by young asthma-sufferers, and that this had influenced their creative decisions in the classroom.

Many, for example, used phrases such as ‘stepping into their shoes’ or ‘seeing things from another point of view’ when discussing patients and their families. One boy told the researchers: “I think by the end of the project I could feel for the people with asthma… if I was a child taking inhalers, I would be scared too.”

Another responded: “Let’s say you had a sister or brother in that position. I would like to do something like this so we can help them.”

Overall, the authors suggest that these findings point to a need to nurture ’emotionally intelligent learners’ not only in D&T classes, but across subjects, particularly in the context of emerging, wider scientific evidence that our capacity for empathy declines as we get older.

“This is something that we must think about as curricula in general become increasingly exam-based,” Demetriou said. “Good grades matter, but for society to thrive, creative, communicative and empathic individuals matter too.”

Nicholl added: “When I taught Design and Technology, I didn’t see children as potential engineers who would one day contribute to the economy; they were people who needed to be ready to go into the world at 18. Teaching children to empathise is about building a society where we appreciate each other’s perspectives. Surely that is something we want education to do.”

The study is published in the journal, Improving Schools.

Dangers of Vaping: It Can Cause Real Harm

Vaping comes with serious risks to one’s health — it isn’t always the harmless activity that many think it is. A significant part of today’s youth are now addicted to nicotine, and it’s in the news more and more what some of the terrible problems heavy vaping users have had. There are people now facing permanent damage to their lungs as a result of vaping. By comparison, smoking cigarettes is of course terrible for one’s health as well, and more studies need to be done on vaping, but people at least need to see much more that vaping can cause major health problems. The reason so many teens are addicted today is because they view vaping as safe when it really isn’t that safe of an activity.

Anthony Mayo, 19, fell seriously ill last week in Erie, Pennsylvania and he was unable to breathe on his own because his lungs had became severely congested with solidified vape oil.

Anthony’s father, ieth Mayo, told Metro US that doctors warned him ‘right now, at the age of 19, (Anthony’s) got the lungs of a 60-year-old, two-pack-a-day, smoker.’ The teen’s lungs are likely to be scarred for life, according to his doctor.

Keith said his son had been vaping for approximately two years and had tried flavored oils such as blue raspberry, Swedish fish, cotton candy, cinnamon toast crunch, among others. He also vaped THC on occasion, which is the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana.

‘It’s solidified. It’s caking everything inside of his lungs,’ Keith said.

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Anthony is now recovering at Millcreek Community Hospital where doctors put him on 100% oxygen to allow him to breathe and help him expel some of the oil.

‘And then they heat (the oxygen mixture) and put a little moisture in it, so it will go in there and liquefy some of that stuff (caked oil) and encourage him to cough it up…the first couple days he has been coughing and it was blood-tinged, now it’s just brown, dark dark green,’ Keith said.

‘He is going to have some scarring. Whether it’s profound, we don’t know yet. It’s a wait and see type of thing. He’s young, he’s 19, so he can recover from this.’

Keith said his son vaped two to three times a day outside their home, but said he did not realize how detrimental vaping could be to his son’s lungs.

‘His whole spin on it was it was cool and not that bad for you. I was just as guilty. I went along with it. I never got into it, but I didn’t also prevent it either,’ he said, adding that he believes vape companies are targeting young people like his son.

‘The flavors that they’re coming out with…It’s not for your construction worker who can’t afford to light up at a building that they’re working, or the executive who is walking to a meeting smoking a cigarette. No, these flavors are all targeting kids or young adults.’

Anthony’s condition is the first recorded instance of its kind in Pennsylvania, Keith said, however it appears similar to a Texas woman who was just officially diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome, a rapidly progressive disease in which fluid leaks into the lungs making it difficult or impossible to breathe.

The Mayos’ situation come as both state and federal governments have begun to crack down on flavored e-cigarettes and vape oil.

New York became the first state to ban flavored e-cigarettes on Tuesday. Last week, President Donald Trump revealed plans to enact a similar ban on a federal level, as the CDC announced there are now 530 confirmed cases of lung injury associated with vaping on Thursday.

Vaping shot to popularity after being marketed as a healthier way of getting a nicotine hit than traditional cigarettes.

Secondhand vaping exposure also presents a danger, and here’s another article:

Adam Hergenreder started vaping about two years ago at age 16. The mint and mango flavors were his favorites.

Now Hergenreder, of Gurnee, is hospitalized and unable to breathe without a steady flow of oxygen through tubes affixed to his nostrils. Doctors have told the 18-year-old that images of his lungs from a chest X-ray look like those of a man in his 70s. His lungs may never be the same again, and vaping is likely to blame.

Hergenreder said he started off using nicotine vapes and bought them in convenience stores, even though he was underage. But last year he also began buying THC-filled devices, called dab sticks, off the street. These products are often altered by those who sell them illegally. Those in the vaping industry have blamed homemade, illegal devices for the recent rash of hospitalizations, though public health experts have said they can’t confirm that.
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Even before the hospitalizations, physicians and addiction experts warned of the danger of vapes, or e-cigarettes, popular among young people. Besides the addictive properties of nicotine, they also contain chemicals used for flavoring that can cause harm to the lungs.

Hergenreder said he and his peers heard the warnings from teachers and parents, but didn’t believe “how dangerous it is.” He continued to vape — up to one and a half pods a day.

 

“People just see that little (vape) pod and think, how could that do anything to my body?” Hergenreder said Tuesday from his hospital bed at Advocate Condell Medical Center in Libertyville, where his mother took him late Saturday after he spent days throwing up violently. “I’m glad I could be an example and show people that (vaping products) aren’t good at all. They will mess up your lungs.”

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The family said they want to share their story in hopes that others will stay away from e-cigarettes, which experts say are appealing to teens because the slim, rectangular devices are easy to hide and don’t have the smell of traditional tobacco cigarettes. The devices heat up a pod filled with a flavored liquid that can contain nicotine or THC, which creates an aerosol to inhale.

“I feel stupid,” Adam Hergenreder said. “I want other people to stop (vaping). It’s going to attack your lungs.”

Negative Potential Health Impacts of Energy Drinks

An underrated health risk, particularly for youth, as the study shows. The link doesn’t mention the combination of energy drinks with alcohol, but that is also a concerning trend, as mixing the two has been shown to raise the risks of adverse health outcomes.

Over half of Canadian youth and young adults who have consumed energy drinks have experienced negative health effects as a result, according to a study from the University of Waterloo.

In a nationwide survey of Canadian youth, over half of those who had ever consumed an energy drink had reported experiencing an adverse health event, including rapid heartbeat, nausea, and in rare cases, seizures.

Currently, Canadian legislation is meant to prohibit energy drinks from being marketed to children and energy drinks are not recommend to be used by people participating in sporting activities.

“Most risk assessments to date have used coffee as a reference for estimating the health effects of energy drinks; however, it is clear these products pose a greater health risk,” said David Hammond a Professor in the School of Public Health at the University of Waterloo. “The health effects from energy could be due to the different ingredients than coffee, or the ways in which they consumed, including with alcohol or during physical activity; regardless, the findings suggest a need to increase surveillance of health effects from these products.”

In conducting the study, the researchers surveyed 2,055 young Canadians aged 12 to 24. Of those that had reported consuming energy drinks at some point in their lives, 55.4 per cent reported experiencing an adverse health event.

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“The number of health effects observed in our study suggests that more should be done to restrict consumption among children and youth,” said Hammond. “At the moment, there are no restrictions on children purchasing energy drinks, and they are marketed at the point-of-sale in grocery stores, as well as advertising that targets children.”

Additional studies on energy drinks. Also, while I appreciate and support esports over violent sports that cause widespread brain damage, such as American football, it should be said that a lot of professional gamers are having a negative influence with their energy drink consumption. As someone who could have gone pro in multiple games, I’ve personally long considered the theoretical short term performance gains of energy drinks to be outweighed by the longer term health consequences.